Italian Reflexive Verbs
Knowing how to use Italian reflexive verbs is extremely important for conversation, since Italian reflexive verbs often describe activities and emotions that are encountered every day. Reflexive verbs are recognized by the –si ending of their infinitive form. Let’s review a bit about reflexive verbs before going on to discuss how they are used to make impersonal statements.
Direct reflexive verbs, as their name suggests, are used when an action refers back directly to the speaker in the subject of the sentence. For example, if one wants to describe the everyday act of falling asleep in Italian, they must use the reflexive verb addormentarsi. Italian reflexive verbs are also used to express the English concept of “to get,” as we’ve seen in a prior Italian Phrases We Use EVERY Day blog. When one “gets mad,” they must express this concept in Italian with the verb arrabbiarsi. Consider also the every day activity of “getting dressed,” with mettersi, which was the focus of another blog in this series, How We Dress.
All Italian students are introduced to a direct reflexive verb of the –arsi type at the very beginning of their studies, when they learn how to introduce themselves with the reflexive verb that means “to be named,” which is chiamarsi. There are, of course, also reflexive verbs of the –ersi and –irsi types as well, such as mettersi (to put on clothes/to get dressed) and divertirsi (to enjoy oneself).
The necessary component of all reflexive verbs is the reflexive pronoun (myself, yourself, himself, etc.), which is what actually corresponds to and refers directly back to the subject.
To review, the reflexive pronouns are:
mi – myself
ti – yourself (familiar)
si – yourself (pol.)/ herself, himself, itself, oneself
ci – ourselves
vi – yourselves (familiar)
si – themselves
To conjugate a reflexive verb, start with the subject pronoun and follow with the corresponding reflexive pronoun. However, remember that for conversational Italian the subject pronoun is usually left out of the sentence and is only sometimes included for emphasis.
Our first table below starts us on our way to the complete conjugation of a reflexive verb by pairing each subject pronoun with its corresponding reflexive pronoun:
All we need to do now is to add our verb to create the action! Notice that the English translation adds the reflexive pronoun after the verb, while in Italian the reflexive pronoun comes before the verb (except for familiar commands). This may take a little time to get used to!
Let’s conjugate divertirsi — to have fun / enjoy oneself — as an example:
|I enjoy myself
|you (familiar) enjoy yourself
|you (polite) enjoy yourself
she/he enjoys herself, himself
|we enjoy ourselves
|you all enjoy yourselves
|they enjoy themselves
How to Make Impersonal Statements with Italian Reflexive Pronouns
Generalizations in the third person, called impersonal statements, are used sparingly in English but are common in Italian. An Italian impersonal statement is created with the reflexive pronoun si, along with a verb in the singular or plural third person (either the lei/lui or the loro form).
As noted from the conjugation tables from the first section…
- when the reflexive pronoun si is used in the singular third person, the reference is to a single, unnamed person, and the subject can be translated as “one.”
- when the reflexive pronoun si is used in the plural third person, the reference is to a group of unnamed people and the subject can be translated as “they.”
In both situations, the speaker is referring in general to someone,
without a individual or group of people in mind.
It makes sense, then, that these statements are called “impersonal statements.”
A common example of an Italian impersonal statement is the phrase, “Come si dice…” This simple Italian phrase is used by every Italian student at one point or another when asking for help with their vocabulary. The literal translation of “Come si dice…?” is, “How does one say…” This construction is only rarely used in spoken English today, and usually in formal situations. Instead, when an English speaker wants to generalize, he or she often uses the collective “you” — directed both at no one in particular and at everyone at the same time! Especially in an informal conversation, “Come si dice…” would be translated into English as, “How do you say…?” But in Italian, when one generalizes, he or she cannot replace the “si” for “one” with “tu” for “you” the way we do in English.
Some generalizations that come up frequently in Italian conversation are listed below. The direct Italian translation is given first, with the English phrase more commonly used to express the same idea in the following translation. You may want to remember the first example when asking for help with your Italian!
|Come si dice…?
|How (does) one say…?
How do you say…?
|Come si dicono…?
|How (do) they say…
How (do) you all say...
|In Italia, si parla italiano.
|In Italy, one speaks Italian.
In Italy, Italian is spoken.
|In America, si parlano molte lingue.
|In America, they speak many languages.
In America, many languages
|Si può fare?
|Can one do it?
Can it be done?
Can you do it?
|Si sa che…
|One knows that…
You know that…
|Non si sa mai!
|One never knows!
You never know!
Impersonal statements can also be used to describe a rule and are often found in Italian sayings or proverbs.
|Si deve obbedire alla legge.
|One must obey the law.
You have to obey the law.
|Non si paga per parcheggiare la domenica.
|One doesn’t pay for parking on Sundays.
You don’t pay for parking on Sundays.
|Qualche volta, uno si trova a un bivio
della propria vita.
|Sometimes, one finds himself at a crossroads
of his life.
|One learns by living.
Use Italian impersonal statements when giving directions, such as when talking a friend through a recipe for a favorite dish. For instance, to describe how to make your family’s Italian tomato sauce, use the common verbs aggiungere (to add) and mettere (to put) in the third person singular with the reflexive pronoun “si” to describe how “one” cooks. For examples, see the first table below. In English, of course, we default to “you” when giving directions to someone in conversation, and this is reflected in the translation. To follow are a few pointers about how to cook pasta to go with that delicious pot of tomato sauce!
|Prima, si taglia a pezzi una cipolla e uno spicchio d’aglio.
|First, one chops an onion and a clove of garlic into small pieces.
First, you chop…
|Poi, si mette la verdura in pentola con l’olio di oliva.
|Then, one puts the vegetables in a pot with olive oil.
Then, you put…
|Li si cuoce, si mescola bene, fino a quando tutti e due sono morbidi.
|One cooks them, sautéing well, until both are soft.
You cook them…
|Si aggiunge la passata di pomodoro, l’acqua, e il basilico.
|One adds tomato puree, water, and basil.
|Si agguinge un po’ di sale e pepe.
|One adds a little bit of salt and pepper.
|Si cuoce la salsa per almeno un’ora, e si mescola bene.
|One cooks the sauce for at least one hour, stirring well.
You cook the sauce… and you mix…
|Per la pasta perfetta, si deve seguire questo metodo:
|For the perfect pasta, one must follow this method:
For the perfect pasta, you must follow…
|Si mette una pentola grande con tanta acqua sui fornelli.
|One puts a large pot with lots of water on the stovetop.
|Si copre e si riscalda l’aqua fino a bollire.
|One covers it and heats up the water until it is boiling.
You cover it… you bring the water to boil…
|Si aggiunge una manciata di sale, si ricopre la pentola, e si riscalda l’aqua fino a fare bollire di nuovo.
|One adds a handful (lots) of salt, one covers the pot, and brings the water to boil again.
You add… you cover the pot… you bring the water to boil…
|Quando l’acqua sta bollendo, scoperchiare la pentola e aggiungere la pasta.
Si deve mescolare bene a questo punto.
|When the water is boiling, uncover the pot and add the pasta.
One must mix well at this point.
You must mix…
|Si fa bollire la pasta secondo le istruzioni nella scatola della pasta.
|One must boil the pasta according to the directions on the pasta box.
You must boil…
|Quando la pasta è al dente, scolare l’acqua e aggiungere la salsa!
|When the pasta is “al dente,” drain the water and add the sauce!
How to Describe Movement with Italian Reflexive Verbs
When an inanimate object does something automatically, this idea is rendered in Italian using the third person of a reflexive verb. In many situations, Italian uses a reflexive verb to describe movement when English relays the same idea by combining the verb with a preposition, such as “on” or “up.” Note that in English, the preposition is added only to change the meaning of the verb. In the same way, Italian uses a reflexive verb, with its reflexive pronoun, to change the meaning of a verb.
Let’s take a simple, every day situation at home for our first example: “Ann turns on the light.” The verb that means “turn on” in Italian is accendere and the Italian translation is, “Anna accende la luce.” But, electric lights can be programmed to turn on automatically. In English, I can say, “The automatic light turns itself on when I enter the room.” Although the preposition “on” is required in English, the reflexive pronoun “itself” is optional. To convey the same idea, it is mandatory in Italian to use the reflexive verb accendersi: “La luce automatica si accende quando entro la stanza.”
In short, English sometimes uses a third person reflexive verb to describe an automatic action but often does not, instead relying on the addition of a preposition. Italian is more consistent, with a reflexive counterpart to most verbs of action that refer to mechanical movement.
Another simple action that requires a reflexive verb in Italian and a [verb + preposition] combination in English is that of “rising up” or “going up.” The verb alzare means “to raise” or “to lift” something. “I lifted the box onto the table,” is a simple sentence that translates as, “Ho alzato la scatola sul tavolo.” But if a person “gets up” in the morning, the action becomes reflexive and the verb alzarsi is needed. Similarly, a bird or an inanimate object such as a kite can “rise up” or “go up” into the sky and the verb alzarsi once again comes into play.
Below are some examples of how Italians use reflexive verbs to describe movement of inanimate objects. Notice an exception to what we have just discussed: the verb cominciare (to start) is not reflexive when speaking about an inanimate object. Also, the verb smettere (to stop) is not used in a reflexive way, although fermare, which also means to stop, does have a reflexive counterpart — fermarsi.
|La luce automatica si accende quando entro la stanza.
|The automatic light turns (itself) on when I enter the room.
|Le luci della casa si accendono ogni sera.
|The house lights turn (themselves) on every night.
|Le luci della casa si spengono ogni sera.
|The house light turn (themselves) off every morning.
|L’acensore si apre.
|The elevator opens.
|L’acensore si chiude.
|The elevator shuts.
|Il treno comincia l’itinerario automaticamente.
|The train starts its route automatically.
|Il treno si ferma automaticamente.
|The train stops automatically.
|Il gabbiano si alza e vola via.
|The sea gull rises up and flies away.
|L’aquilone si alza nelle nuvole.
|The kite rises into the clouds.
How to Describe Nature and Life with
Italian Reflexive Verbs
We all know the forces of nature well, as they act every day to create the environment in which we live. Since nature is an inanimate being, the actions of the weather are often given with reflexive verbs in Italian. Listen closely to the Italian news and you will hear about how a volcano in Sicily finally stopped erupting, or how the sea has begun to rise in the Venetian lagoon — all described in the third person with Italian reflexive verbs!
For the common phrases that describe what weather “it” is making, such as,“Fa caldo oggi” (“It is hot today”) or “Fa freddo oggi” (“It is cold today”), Italians use fare in the third person without an indirect object pronoun. But to say, “It is getting late,” or “It is getting dark,” we use the reflexive farsi for the phrases, “Si fa tarde” or “Si fa buio.”(For more of these common phrases, visit our blog in this series, “The Weather in Italian.”)
In the same way, it is often necessary to use Italian reflexive verbs when speaking about abstract forces that can “act” on our lives. Life itself is often spoken of as “moving” slowly or quickly. However, there is no reflexive verb for passare, so time can be seen as “passing by” without the reflexive. (For more ways to use passare, visit our blog in this series, “The Many Uses of Passare.”)
In short, to understand the nuances of how to use reflexive verbs to describe actions of the weather or make generalizations about life, it is helpful to listen to native Italians as much as possible. In this way, it will eventually become natural to use Italian verbs the way Italians do!
The examples discussed above are listed below.
|L’eruzione del vulcano in Sicilia si è fermata.
|The eruption of the volcano in Sicily has stopped.
|L’acqua a Venezia si è alzata due metri
e si sta alzando ancora!
|The water in Venice has risen 2 meters and is still rising!
|Fa caldo oggi. / Fa freddo oggi.
|It is warm today. / It is cold today.
|Si fa tarde. / Si fa buio.
|It is getting dark. / It is getting late.
|Nella campagna, la vita si muove lentamente.
|In the country, life moves slowly.
|Il tempo passa lentamente quando si aspetta.
|Time passes slowly for one who waits (when one is waiting for something.)
Listen carefully to Italians when they speak
and I guarantee you will hear
Italian impersonal statements and Italian reflexive verbs